Month: August 2018

Citation: Mets DG, Brainard MS (2018) An automated approach to the quantitation of vocalizations and vocal learning in the songbird. PLoS Comput Biol 14(8): e1006437. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006437 Editor: Dezhe Z. Jin, The Pennsylvania State University, UNITED STATES Received: August 4, 2017; Accepted: August 15, 2018; Published: August 31, 2018 Copyright: © 2018 Mets, Brainard. This is
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Citation: Tzovara A, Korn CW, Bach DR (2018) Human Pavlovian fear conditioning conforms to probabilistic learning. PLoS Comput Biol 14(8): e1006243. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006243 Editor: Samuel J. Gershman, Harvard University, UNITED STATES Received: May 30, 2017; Accepted: May 29, 2018; Published: August 31, 2018 Copyright: © 2018 Tzovara et al. This is an open access article distributed
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HEIDELBERG, Germany (Reuters) – Armed with a mouse and computer screen instead of a scalpel and operating theater, cardiologist Benjamin Meder carefully places the electrodes of a pacemaker in a beating, digital heart. A three-dimensional printout of a human heart is seen at the Heidelberg University Hospital (Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg) in Heidelberg, Germany, August 14, 2018.
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One of the main benefits of using modern RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology is the more accurate gene expression estimations compared with previous generations of expression data, such as the microarray. However, numerous issues can result in the possibility that an RNA-Seq read can be mapped to multiple locations on the reference genome with the same alignment
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Cellular RNA levels are determined by transcription and decay rates, which are fundamental in understanding gene expression regulation. Measurement of these two parameters is usually performed independently, complicating analysis as well as introducing methodological biases and batch effects that hamper direct comparison. Researchers from Aarhus University present a simple approach of concurrent sequencing of S. cerevisiae
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Hilleman helped develop vaccines against several strains of the flu during his 40-year career in vaccine research. Jonas Salk gained worldwide fame for his polio vaccine; Louis Pasteur is remembered, among other things, for developing a vaccine against rabies, and Edward Jenner’s name is forever connected to vaccination against smallpox. But history barely remembers the
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Detecting repeated cancer evolution from multi-region tumor sequencing data Detecting repeated cancer evolution from multi-region tumor sequencing data, Published online: 31 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41592-018-0108-x REVOLVER uses transfer learning on multi-region tumor sequencing data to jointly infer tumor evolution models in multiple individuals and to detect repeated evolutionary trajectories. Repeated evolution can be used to stratify
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Easing the burden of code review Easing the burden of code review, Published online: 31 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41592-018-0137-5 Nature Methods is one of several Nature journals undertaking a trial with Code Ocean, a cloud-based reproducibility platform, to make it easier to peer review computational code.
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Detecting acetylcholine Detecting acetylcholine, Published online: 31 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41592-018-0131-y A genetically encoded sensor based on G-protein-coupled receptors can detect the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in vitro and in vivo.
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CDeep3M—Plug-and-Play cloud-based deep learning for image segmentation CDeep3M—Plug-and-Play cloud-based deep learning for image segmentation, Published online: 31 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41592-018-0106-z CDeep3M provides a user-friendly tool for deep-learning-based image segmentation via a cloud-based deep convolutional neural network. Demonstrations include challenging light, X-ray, and electron microscopy segmentation tasks.
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The hepatocellular carcinoma market The hepatocellular carcinoma market, Published online: 31 August 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.146 The market for hepatocellular carcinoma is set to change with the recent approvals of the kinase inhibitor lenvatinib and the immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab, as well as the anticipated approvals of further immunotherapies.
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Molecular mechanisms of CRISPR–Cas spacer acquisition Molecular mechanisms of CRISPR–Cas spacer acquisition, Published online: 31 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0071-7 In this Progress article, McGinn and Marraffini review recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of spacer integration, protospacer capture and primed spacer acquisition, and discuss the future of the field.
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A model of Toyota Motor Corp.’s Prius battery pack is displayed at Panasonic EV Energy Co.’s Omori plant in Kosei, central Japan, Friday, June 5, 2009. (AP Photo/Shizuo Kambayashi) Co-authors Austin Brown & Dan Sperling EV challenges remain but battery life is not one  of them. There are lots of great reasons to drive electric. The modern
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Abstract The mechanism of rapid energy supply to the brain, especially to accommodate the heightened metabolic activity of excited states, is not well-understood. We explored the role of glycogen as a fuel source for neuromodulation using the noradrenergic stimulation of glia in a computational model of the neural-glial-vasculature ensemble (NGV). The detection of norepinephrine (NE)
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Abstract Workshops are used to explore a specific topic, to transfer knowledge, to solve identified problems, or to create something new. In funded research projects and other research endeavours, workshops are the mechanism used to gather the wider project, community, or interested people together around a particular topic. However, natural questions arise: how do we
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Abstract The spikes on virus surfaces bind receptors on host cells to propagate infection. High spike densities (SDs) can promote infection, but spikes are also targets of antibody-mediated immune responses. Thus, diverse evolutionary pressures can influence virus SDs. HIV’s SD is about two orders of magnitude lower than that of other viruses, a surprising feature
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Abstract Isolation profoundly influences social behavior in all animals. In humans, isolation has serious effects on health and disease. Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model to study small-scale, temporally-transient social behavior. However, longer-term analysis of large groups of flies is hampered by the lack of effective and reliable tools. We built a new imaging arena
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Citation: Raden M, Mohamed MM, Ali SM, Backofen R (2018) Interactive implementations of thermodynamics-based RNA structure and RNA–RNA interaction prediction approaches for example-driven teaching. PLoS Comput Biol 14(8): e1006341. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006341 Editor: Francis Ouellette, Genome Quebec, CANADA Published: August 30, 2018 Copyright: © 2018 Raden et al. This is an open access article distributed under the
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Abstract Hysteresis, the discrepancy in forward and reverse pathways of state transitions, is observed during changing levels of consciousness. Identifying the underlying mechanism of hysteresis phenomena in the brain will enhance the ability to understand, monitor, and control state transitions related to consciousness. We hypothesized that hysteresis in brain networks shares the same underlying mechanism
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