Month: November 2018

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Abstract Cognition can reveal itself in the pupil, as latent cognitive processes map onto specific pupil responses. For instance, the pupil dilates when we make decisions and these pupil size fluctuations reflect decision-making computations during and after a choice. Surprisingly little is known, however, about how pupil responses relate to decisions driven by the learned
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Abstract Toxicity is an important factor in failed drug development, and its efficient identification and prediction is a major challenge in drug discovery. We have explored the potential of microscopy images of fluorescently labeled nuclei for the prediction of toxicity based on nucleus pattern recognition. Deep learning algorithms obtain abstract representations of images through an
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Citation: Wang W, Zhang S, Ni H, Garratt CJ, Boyett MR, Hancox JC, et al. (2018) Mechanistic insight into spontaneous transition from cellular alternans to arrhythmia—A simulation study. PLoS Comput Biol 14(11): e1006594. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006594 Editor: Alexander V. Panfilov, Universiteit Gent, BELGIUM Received: June 7, 2018; Accepted: October 23, 2018; Published: November 30, 2018 Copyright: ©
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By choosing “I agree” below, you agree that NPR’s sites use cookies, similar tracking and storage technologies, and information about the device you use to access our sites to enhance your viewing, listening and user experience, personalize content, personalize messages from NPR’s sponsors, provide social media features, and analyze NPR’s traffic. This information is shared
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Pisa: Street art, sidewalk chalk portrait of Galileo Galilei. In Italy pavement artists can transform ordinary sidewalks in real works of art.Getty On this night in 1609, astronomer Galileo Galilei trained his telescope on the Moon for the first time. What he saw would overturn an ancient model of the universe. In 1609, most European
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Publication date: 1 October 2018 Source: Methods, Volume 149 Author(s): Mabel Guzman-Rodriguez, Julie A.K. McDonald, Richard Hyde, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Erika C. Claud, Prameet M. Sheth, Elaine O. Petrof Abstract The study of complex microbial communities has become a major research focus as mounting evidence suggests the pivotal role microbial communities play in host health and
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Publication date: 1 October 2018 Source: Methods, Volume 149 Author(s): Eleanor Jameson, Mussa Quareshy, Yin Chen Abstract The bacterial formation of trimethylamine (TMA) has been linked to cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on the methods employed to investigate the identity of the bacteria responsible for the formation of TMA from dietary choline and carnitine in
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MELBOURNE, Australia — As wildfires raged across the country, a heat wave again threatened the Great Barrier Reef and a mining giant announced it would push ahead with a huge coal project, thousands of students across Australia quit school for the day on Friday to protest government inaction on climate change. The students — ranging
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Once every year, engineers measure the Leaning Tower of Pisa’s precarious tilt. Last week they announced that the tower had been self-correcting for more than a decade and had finally stopped. The surprise gain straightened the landmark by four centimeters. Although that may seem small, it is a welcome gift after centuries of worry that
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Women often wonder what the “right” length of time is after giving birth before getting pregnant again. A recent Canadian study suggests 12-18 months between pregnancies is ideal for most women. But the period between pregnancies, and whether a shorter or longer period poses risks, is still contested, especially when it comes to other factors such
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long RNAs are first converted into a library of cDNA fragments through either RNA fragmentation or DNA fragmentation. Sequencing adaptors (blue) are subsequently added to each cDNA fragment and a short sequence is obtained from each cDNA using high-throughput sequencing technology. The resulting sequence reads are aligned with the reference genome or transcriptome, and classified
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The Stanford Ocean Acidification Experience Virtual Reality (VR) simulationStanford’s Virtual Human Interaction Lab Climate parlance like ‘2C threshold’ and ‘ocean acidification’ hardly stir emotions. But the consequences of these phenomena can easily overwhelm them: One hundred million people projected to lose their lives in the next 11 years due to climate change. Roughly 75% of
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Posted by: Prashant Gupta in Analysis Pipelines, Reader Conributions 23 hours ago 219 Views The advent of single-cell transcriptomics has made rare cell discovery a mainstream component in the downstream analysis pipeline. When the number of profiled cells are in the hundreds, even an outlier cell (singleton) deserves attention. But, the focus shifts to the
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One of the titans of 20th-century physics, Richard Feynman deciphered the interplay of fundamental particles and forces. He wrote popular books in which he portrayed himself as a charming scientific rogue, and played a key role in the investigation of the loss of the space shuttle Challenger. While brilliant, he was not perfect. That becomes
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An explant technique for high-resolution imaging and manipulation of mycobacterial granulomas An explant technique for high-resolution imaging and manipulation of mycobacterial granulomas, Published online: 30 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41592-018-0215-8 An ex vivo 3D culture model of mycobacterial granulomas recapitulates the in vivo physiology of these structures and enables longitudinal imaging studies. The platform allows genetic and
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Comparing phenotypic variation between inbred and outbred mice Comparing phenotypic variation between inbred and outbred mice, Published online: 30 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41592-018-0224-7 Inbred mice are preferred over outbred mice because it is assumed that they display less trait variability. We compared coefficients of variation and did not find evidence of greater trait stability in inbred
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A metabolic network represents in an organism the complete set of biochemical reactions suitable to synthesise or break-down metabolites. These reactions drive the production of biomass and energy to support all cellular processes. The reconstruction of a full metabolic network occurring within each cell has advanced from early biochemical studies to algorithmically-generated pathway diagrams starting
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In some cases manifestations of FD occur at an early age with general, neurological, cardiovascular and renal signs, in other cases in adulthood and with a limited subset of symptoms. For this reason a qualitative phenotypic classification of mutations based on the symptoms observed in the patients, has been attempted and classic or severe ones
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Sequence meets space Sequence meets space, Published online: 30 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41592-018-0243-4 A new computational method integrates RNA single-cell sequencing and spatial data.
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Therapeutic potential of ectopic olfactory and taste receptors Therapeutic potential of ectopic olfactory and taste receptors, Published online: 30 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41573-018-0002-3 Olfactory and taste receptors are ectopically expressed in multiple extra-nasal and extra-oral tissues, exhibiting potential functions in a diverse range of biological processes. Here, Lee et al. discuss the physiological roles of these
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Previous efforts carried out in the analysis of environmental datasets, such as the Earth Microbiome Project [16, 29] and the Global Ocean Sampling [30], produced an astounding amount of sequence data from several environmental samples across the world. Global scale studies can produce an overwhelming amount of data, based on consistent methodological approach, which for
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One of the main focuses of translational medicine is the comprehension of molecular mechanisms that characterise the cellular behaviour of complex human diseases [1]. microRNAs (miRNAs) are “master regulators” of gene expression [2], and several pieces of evidence show their involvement in physiological and pathological processes by interaction with target genes [3, 4]. In cancer,
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Non-invasive delivery strategies for biologics Non-invasive delivery strategies for biologics, Published online: 30 November 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.183 The requirement for delivery by injection is currently a limitation for the use of biologic drugs such as antibodies. In this Review, Mitragotri and colleagues discuss advances made in non-invasive drug delivery for biologics, including the transdermal, oral and
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B-factor correlations: Sequence, structure, and experimental We considered a high-resolution protein (2.25 Å) that is involved in amino acid catabolism, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (1JQI), as an example case to examine the B-factor profiles and predicted contact maps using Seq-GNM. Coevolution analysis using direct coupling analysis (DCA) has been shown to recapitulate accurate structural contact maps for
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