Reviews

Exporting electrons Exporting electrons, Published online: 20 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0088-y This study identifies a novel and simple electron transport chain in Listeria monocytogenes, whereby electrons are transported from intracellular NADH to quinone and subsequently via an extracellular flavoprotein to a terminal electron acceptor.
0 Comments
Dystonia Dystonia, Published online: 20 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41572-018-0028-1 This illustrated PrimeView discusses the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and management of dystonia.
0 Comments
A new era for understanding amyloid structures and disease A new era for understanding amyloid structures and disease, Published online: 20 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0060-8 The aggregation of proteins into amyloid fibrils and their deposition into plaques and intracellular inclusions is the hallmark of amyloid disease. Recent advances in structural biology techniques have provided insight into
0 Comments
DNA-based memory devices for recording cellular events DNA-based memory devices for recording cellular events, Published online: 20 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0052-8 In this Review, Sheth and Wang describe emerging synthetic biology approaches for using DNA as a memory device for recording cellular events, including the various methodological steps from detecting diverse signals, converting them into DNA
0 Comments
Computational tools to unmask transposable elements Computational tools to unmask transposable elements, Published online: 19 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0050-x The repetitive nature of transposable elements (TEs) creates bioinformatic challenges that frequently result in them being disregarded (‘masked’) in analyses. As physiological and pathological roles for TEs become increasingly appreciated, this Review discusses bioinformatics tools dedicated to
0 Comments
Stem cell fate in cancer growth, progression and therapy resistance Stem cell fate in cancer growth, progression and therapy resistance, Published online: 18 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0056-x This Review discusses how cells with stem cell characteristics often serve as the tumour cell of origin, as they are preferentially primed for transformation. Furthermore, the activation of stem
0 Comments
Cardioimmunology: the immune system in cardiac homeostasis and disease Cardioimmunology: the immune system in cardiac homeostasis and disease, Published online: 18 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0065-8 Recent studies have characterized complex interactions between resident and infiltrating immune cells in the heart and cardiac cells, including cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. This Review explores the role of immune
0 Comments
Progress and potential in organoid research Progress and potential in organoid research, Published online: 18 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0051-9 Organoids are 3D structures derived from stem cells that recapitulate some key characteristics of real organs. The authors review recent progress in organoid derivation and applications and outline how advances in other disciplines might lead to more
0 Comments
Regulation of microRNA biogenesis and its crosstalk with other cellular pathways Regulation of microRNA biogenesis and its crosstalk with other cellular pathways, Published online: 18 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0059-1 The cleavage of microRNA (miRNA) precursors by Drosha and Dicer and their loading with Argonaute proteins into RNA-induced silencing complexes are key steps in miRNA biogenesis. Recent
0 Comments
The (chain) terminators The (chain) terminators, Published online: 18 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0063-5 The introduction of DNA-chain terminators for sequencing by Fred Sanger enabled the early genome sequencing projects.
0 Comments
Communities at the centre Communities at the centre, Published online: 14 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0079-z Nature Reviews Microbiology celebrates its 15th anniversary and with it the microbiology community, many of whom have contributed directly and indirectly to the journal.
0 Comments
Filming flagella and pili in action Filming flagella and pili in action, Published online: 14 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0077-1 This month’s Under the Lens discusses the utility of live-cell fluorescence labelling to record the dynamics of bacterial surface appendages.
0 Comments
Hepatorenal syndrome Hepatorenal syndrome, Published online: 13 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41572-018-0022-7 Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as severe kidney functional impairment that occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis. This Primer discusses new diagnostic criteria of acute kidney injury in the context of HRS and also covers pathophysiology and management of this serious disorder.
0 Comments
HIV-1’s fingerprint HIV-1’s fingerprint, Published online: 13 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0086-0 This study used a large cohort of HIV-1 transmission pairs to determine the contribution of viral genetics on the development of neutralizing antibodies.
0 Comments
Defining orphan conditions in the context of the European orphan regulation: challenges and evolution Defining orphan conditions in the context of the European orphan regulation: challenges and evolution, Published online: 12 September 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.128 The definition and acceptability of an orphan condition is pivotal for the assessment of European orphan medicinal product designation applications, and
0 Comments
Receptor replacement Receptor replacement, Published online: 12 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0060-x Mice receiving autoantibodies against the GluA2 AMPA receptor subunit from individuals with autoimmune encephalitis exhibit changes in AMPA receptor subunit composition and impaired synaptic plasticity and memory.
0 Comments
Changing mutational patterns Changing mutational patterns, Published online: 12 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0058-8 Lee, Adler et al. show that urea cycle dysregulation is common in cancer and leads to a purine to pyrimidine mutational bias that is associated with a better response to immune checkpoint inhibitors.
0 Comments
Making new memories Making new memories, Published online: 12 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0064-9 Laura Mackay describes two landmark papers by Gebhardt et al. and Masopust et al., published in 2009 and 2010, that signified the advent of tissue-resident memory T cells as a distinct T cell subset.
0 Comments
Natural killer cells and other innate lymphoid cells in cancer Natural killer cells and other innate lymphoid cells in cancer, Published online: 12 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0061-z Eric Vivier and colleagues discuss the emerging roles for natural killer (NK) cells and other innate lymphoid cell populations in cancer immunity. The authors highlight the current immunotherapy trials
0 Comments
The girl with Neanderthal and Denisovan parents The girl with Neanderthal and Denisovan parents, Published online: 12 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0054-6 A study in Nature characterizes the genome of Denisova 11 and reveals her to be a first-generation offspring of Neanderthal and Denisovan parents, thereby providing direct evidence of genetic mixing between genetically distinct groups of
0 Comments
Disordered interactions Disordered interactions, Published online: 12 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0061-7 Direct demonstration that mutations in intrinsically disordered regions modulate protein–protein interaction networks, which may cause disease.
0 Comments
Author Correction: Anti-trypanosomatid drug discovery: an ongoing challenge and a continuing need Author Correction: Anti-trypanosomatid drug discovery: an ongoing challenge and a continuing need, Published online: 11 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0085-1 Author Correction: Anti-trypanosomatid drug discovery: an ongoing challenge and a continuing need
0 Comments
Microglial signatures and their role in health and disease Microglial signatures and their role in health and disease, Published online: 11 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0057-5 Technological advances have allowed the molecular ‘signatures’ of microglia to be characterized, providing insight into their roles in CNS function. Weiner and Butovsky discuss the plasticity of these signatures in health
0 Comments
Inflammasome signalling in brain function and neurodegenerative disease Inflammasome signalling in brain function and neurodegenerative disease, Published online: 11 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0055-7 Inflammasomes are pro-inflammatory protein complexes that become activated in a range of neurodegenerative conditions. In this review, Heneka and colleagues discuss recent findings that provide fresh insights on the role of inflammasomes across
0 Comments
T cells under starter’s orders T cells under starter’s orders, Published online: 11 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0067-6 Naive CD4+ T cells are prepared for rapid activation and metabolic remodelling through the derepression of a poised translational machinery, which occurs independently of nutrient-sensing pathways.
0 Comments
To degrade or not to degrade: mechanisms and significance of endocytic recycling To degrade or not to degrade: mechanisms and significance of endocytic recycling, Published online: 07 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0053-7 Endocytosed membrane proteins can either be degraded in the lysosome or recycled back to the membrane. This decision, which has an impact on protein levels,
0 Comments
The birth, evolution and death of metabolic gene clusters in fungi The birth, evolution and death of metabolic gene clusters in fungi, Published online: 07 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0075-3 In this Review, Rokas, Wisecaver and Lind discuss the diversity in the structure and content of fungal metabolic gene clusters, their population-level and species-level variation, the evolutionary
0 Comments
Rewiring urea cycle metabolism in cancer to support anabolism Rewiring urea cycle metabolism in cancer to support anabolism, Published online: 07 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0054-z This Review discusses the reprogramming of the urea cycle, the main metabolic liver pathway for nitrogen disposal, in cancer cells. The authors provide insight into the metabolic advantages and therapeutic opportunities stemming from
0 Comments
An RNA toolbox for cancer immunotherapy An RNA toolbox for cancer immunotherapy, Published online: 07 September 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.132 In this Review, Pastor et al. provide an overview of RNA-based agents used in cancer immunotherapy — ranging from RNA vaccines encoding cancer neoantigens to interference RNAs and protein-binding RNA aptamers — providing insights into this emerging
0 Comments
Rodent models for Alzheimer disease Rodent models for Alzheimer disease, Published online: 07 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0054-8 Rodent models are extensively used to investigate the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease. In this Review, Götz, Bodea and Goedert critically examine the approaches that have been adopted to generate rodent Alzheimer disease models and touch on some of the
0 Comments
Wilson disease Wilson disease, Published online: 06 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41572-018-0018-3 Wilson disease is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism that is characterized by the pathological accumulation of copper. This Primer describes the pathogenesis of this disorder and outlines diagnostic and management strategies.
0 Comments
Publisher Correction: Structural underpinnings of oestrogen receptor mutations in endocrine therapy resistance Publisher Correction: Structural underpinnings of oestrogen receptor mutations in endocrine therapy resistance, Published online: 05 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0053-0 Publisher Correction: Structural underpinnings of oestrogen receptor mutations in endocrine therapy resistance
0 Comments
Biosynthetic capacity, metabolic variety and unusual biology in the CPR and DPANN radiations Biosynthetic capacity, metabolic variety and unusual biology in the CPR and DPANN radiations, Published online: 04 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0076-2 Candidate phyla radiation (CPR) bacteria and DPANN archaea are massive radiations of organisms recently identified. In this Analysis, Castelle et al. explore the
0 Comments
Polyamine metabolism and cancer: treatments, challenges and opportunities Polyamine metabolism and cancer: treatments, challenges and opportunities, Published online: 04 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0050-3 This Review discusses new insights into molecular mechanisms that link the dysregulation of polyamine metabolism with carcinogenesis and strategies for targeting this pathway for cancer therapy.
0 Comments
Channeling the vacuole Channeling the vacuole, Published online: 03 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0081-5 Two recent studies provide new insights into the architecture, molecular mechanisms and function of the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX) complex and the core PTEX protein EXP2.
0 Comments
Forkhead box transcription factors as context-dependent regulators of lymphocyte homeostasis Forkhead box transcription factors as context-dependent regulators of lymphocyte homeostasis, Published online: 03 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0048-9 This Review highlights the key roles of forkhead box transcription factors (FTFs) in regulating lymphocyte responses. The authors discuss how FTFs function as context-dependent rheostats, allowing lymphocytes to fine-tune
0 Comments