Reviews

Channeling the vacuole Channeling the vacuole, Published online: 03 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0081-5 Two recent studies provide new insights into the architecture, molecular mechanisms and function of the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX) complex and the core PTEX protein EXP2.
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Forkhead box transcription factors as context-dependent regulators of lymphocyte homeostasis Forkhead box transcription factors as context-dependent regulators of lymphocyte homeostasis, Published online: 03 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0048-9 This Review highlights the key roles of forkhead box transcription factors (FTFs) in regulating lymphocyte responses. The authors discuss how FTFs function as context-dependent rheostats, allowing lymphocytes to fine-tune
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Molecular mechanisms of CRISPR–Cas spacer acquisition Molecular mechanisms of CRISPR–Cas spacer acquisition, Published online: 31 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0071-7 In this Progress article, McGinn and Marraffini review recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of spacer integration, protospacer capture and primed spacer acquisition, and discuss the future of the field.
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The hepatocellular carcinoma market The hepatocellular carcinoma market, Published online: 31 August 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.146 The market for hepatocellular carcinoma is set to change with the recent approvals of the kinase inhibitor lenvatinib and the immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab, as well as the anticipated approvals of further immunotherapies.
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Publisher Correction: Studying tissue macrophages in vitro: are iPSC-derived cells the answer? Publisher Correction: Studying tissue macrophages in vitro: are iPSC-derived cells the answer?, Published online: 30 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0060-0 Publisher Correction: Studying tissue macrophages in vitro: are iPSC-derived cells the answer?
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REM sleep behaviour disorder REM sleep behaviour disorder, Published online: 30 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41572-018-0016-5 Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by a loss of muscle atonia and abnormal behaviours during REM sleep. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of RBD as well as the relationship and implications of
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Penny Heaton Penny Heaton, Published online: 30 August 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.151 Penny Heaton, CEO of the Bill and Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute, discusses how the recently launched non-profit biotech will tackle the translational science of TB, malaria and diarrhoeal diseases.
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Maximizing delivery Maximizing delivery, Published online: 30 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0078-0 This study shows that rotaviruses and noroviruses are transmitted in stool as clusters of viruses within vesicles, and that this mode of transmission provides a replication advantage.
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Multiple sclerosis and cognition: synaptic failure and network dysfunction Multiple sclerosis and cognition: synaptic failure and network dysfunction, Published online: 29 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0053-9 Cognitive impairment is a key feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Di Filippo and colleagues provide an overview of the cognitive domains and brain regions that are affected in MS, with a
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TUT-TUTting retrotransposons TUT-TUTting retrotransposons, Published online: 29 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0058-2 3′uridylation by TUT4 and TUT7 is shown as a post-transcriptional mechanism restricting retrotransposition of LINE-1 elements and also replication of animal RNA viruses.
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Leukaemic escape routes Leukaemic escape routes, Published online: 29 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0051-2 Yao et al. have established that acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells bypass the need to metastasize via the circulation to the CNS and instead use a direct route migrating along the vascular channels that bridge the bone marrow to the meninges in an α6
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Epigenetic control by sugar Epigenetic control by sugar, Published online: 29 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0052-1 A recent study, published in Nature, identifies the methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2) as an epigenetic modifier that is regulated in response to glucose availability and mechanistically links higher cancer susceptibility in patients with diabetes to high blood glucose levels.
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Concentrating on the claustrum Concentrating on the claustrum, Published online: 28 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0056-6 Two studies show that the claustrum delivers inhibition to different parts of the cortex — the prefrontal cortex and auditory cortex.
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Full speed ahead for single-cell analysis Full speed ahead for single-cell analysis, Published online: 28 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0049-3 A study in Nature describes RNA velocity, which is a computational method to derive dynamic gene expression information from static single-cell RNA sequencing data. It provides valuable insights into developmental trajectories of cells.
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The machineries, regulation and cellular functions of mitochondrial calcium The machineries, regulation and cellular functions of mitochondrial calcium, Published online: 24 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0052-8 Uptake of Ca2+ ions by mitochondria regulates their functions and serves to buffer Ca2+ concentrations to maintain cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Better understanding of the mechanisms, regulation and (patho)physiology of mitochondrial Ca2+
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Expanding the medicinal chemistry synthetic toolbox Expanding the medicinal chemistry synthetic toolbox, Published online: 24 August 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.116 Analysis of the role of synthetic organic chemistry in the identification of chemical starting points for drug discovery and subsequent optimization into candidate drugs indicates that a small number of reactions and commercially available building blocks dominate.
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A new timeline of life’s early evolution A new timeline of life’s early evolution, Published online: 24 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0080-6 A recent study integrates genomic, geological and fossil evidence to derive a timeline of life’s early evolution and the origin of eukaryotes.
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Molecular mechanisms of viral oncogenesis in humans Molecular mechanisms of viral oncogenesis in humans, Published online: 24 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0064-6 Viral infection is a major contributor to the global cancer burden. In this Review, Krump and You explore the molecular mechanisms of viral oncogenesis in humans. They highlight how viral manipulation of host cellular signalling,
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Interplay between innate immunity and Alzheimer disease: APOE and TREM2 in the spotlight Interplay between innate immunity and Alzheimer disease: APOE and TREM2 in the spotlight, Published online: 23 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0051-1 In this Review, Shi and Holtzman highlight our growing understanding of the innate immune mechanisms that contribute to Alzheimer disease with a specific
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Studying tissue macrophages in vitro: are iPSC-derived cells the answer? Studying tissue macrophages in vitro: are iPSC-derived cells the answer?, Published online: 23 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0054-y Can macrophages derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) be used to effectively model in vivo tissue macrophages? Here, the authors consider the pros and cons of the different
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In vivo lineage tracing in mice In vivo lineage tracing in mice, Published online: 22 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0048-4 A study in Science reports the successful application of CRISPR–Cas genome editing to track and reconstruct developmental lineages in the mouse.
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Not so CRISP(R) Not so CRISP(R), Published online: 22 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0056-4 A study reports that CRISPR–Cas9 induces extensive on-target mutagenesis in mouse and human cells, calling for greater caution when using it in clinical contexts.
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Microbiology of the built environment Microbiology of the built environment, Published online: 20 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0065-5 In this Review, Gilbert and Stephens outline the history of the field of microbiology of the built environment and discuss insights into microbial ecology, adaptation and evolution. They consider the implications of this research, specifically, how it is changing
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Perivascular macrophages in health and disease Perivascular macrophages in health and disease, Published online: 20 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41577-018-0056-9 This Review examines the functions of a specialized population of macrophages that make direct contact with or are found within one cell thickness of the abluminal surface of blood vessels in various tissues during both steady-state conditions
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New approaches and challenges to targeting the endocannabinoid system New approaches and challenges to targeting the endocannabinoid system, Published online: 17 August 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.115 Dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system has been implicated in numerous diseases, particularly pain, psychiatric and neurological disorders, but therapeutic intervention in this complex system has proved challenging. In this Perspective article,
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Promoting the clearance of neurotoxic proteins in neurodegenerative disorders of ageing Promoting the clearance of neurotoxic proteins in neurodegenerative disorders of ageing, Published online: 17 August 2018; doi:10.1038/nrd.2018.109 Neurodegenerative disorders of ageing such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and Huntington disease are characterized by the presence of neurotoxic misfolded and aggregated proteins. One reason underlying
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Alcoholic liver disease Alcoholic liver disease, Published online: 16 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41572-018-0014-7 Alcoholic liver disease refers to a spectrum of disorders that are caused by chronic alcohol consumption. This Primer covers the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and management of alcoholic liver disease.
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Cancer in wildlife: patterns of emergence Cancer in wildlife: patterns of emergence, Published online: 16 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0045-0 Cancer is ubiquitous in wildlife and is an increasing concern for endangered species. This Review discusses the impact of cancer on animal species and highlights how studying these effects could reveal shared mechanisms of cancer predisposition between
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Auditory advances Auditory advances, Published online: 15 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0052-x Spontaneous activity in the developing auditory system is maintained by a homeostatic mechanism and is important for cochlear neuron subtype specification.
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Poly(dA:dT) make it and break it Poly(dA:dT) make it and break it, Published online: 15 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0054-6 Poly(dA:dT) tracts characterize strong DNA replication origins in mammals and cause replication-fork collapse and DNA breaks that underlie the expression of fragile sites.
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Author Correction: Functional 5′ UTR mRNA structures in eukaryotic translation regulation and how to find them Author Correction: Functional 5′ UTR mRNA structures in eukaryotic translation regulation and how to find them, Published online: 15 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41580-018-0055-5 Author Correction: Functional 5′ UTR mRNA structures in eukaryotic translation regulation and how to find them
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